Workshops & Papers
One of the main tenets of Jungian psychology is the concept of Individuation. Individuation is striving for wholeness of the personality. Jung adopted the term from Aristotle and others who wrote of the principium individuation is, the process by which the general becomes ever more particular as it develops. Each individual has an opportunity for development that is unique. The terms individual and individuation are not synonymous. One individual sunflower is slightly different from the next, but one individual human is noticeably different from the next. The physical manifestation of two sunflowers and two human beings create individual differences. However, human beings also have personalities and each human personality is often vastly different from the others, with considerable differences in consciousness.
Jung noticed that sometimes a person may exhibit more than one personality. A man acts one way behind the desk and another way behind the wheel, or a woman is experienced one way by her colleagues and another way by her family. Jung thought that such alternate person alities residing within one person revealed unconscious parts of the human psyche that lie just below the surface of awareness and strive for expression. Becoming aware of those unconscious parts, owing them as aspects of one’s humanity, and more fully developing the personality is the process Jung named “individuation.” The developmental form of individuation occurs natur ally in the course of a lifetime. The assisted form of individuation is the more deliberate attempt to consciously strive for wholeness.
Individuation is always to some extent opposed to collective norms, since it means separation and differentiation from the general and a building up of the particular—not a particularity that is sought out, but one that is already ingrained in the psychic condition. The opposition to the collective norm, however, is only apparent, since closer examination shows that the individual standpoint is not antagonistic to it, but only differently oriented.*
Each individual human is a separate being. The more the ego is involved in the process of individuation, the greater the opportunity for the pursuit of wholeness. Someone who is individuating is consciously striving for wholeness by extending consciousness and assimilating unconscious aspects of personality. Life creates a set of circumstances, consciousness creates an ego with a capacity for awareness, and memory stores an experience. When the ego is assisted to attend to unconscious contents that intrude on consciousness, individuation may be more pronounced, and the personality more whole.
Individuation and Groups
Jung’s focus on the individual movement toward wholeness leaves us with many questions about
developmental movements in collectives. Jung acknowledged that within analytical dyads, the
interactions could further the individuation of both analysand and analyst. It is a small step from
an analytical dyad in which the analyst facilitates an assisted individuation of the analysand to
a family group with its mixture of developmental stages, conscious and unconscious interactions
in which the parents may be more conscious than the children. Members of a family experience
simultaneously a strong pull toward the collective of the family and a push toward the develop
mental form of individuation of the individual. The observation of the dynamics of small groups
is in many ways similar to the work of the family systems practitioners. In addition, some Jungian
analysts have explored the relationship between the process of individuation and participation
as a member of a group.
The social attitude does not come into operation in the dialectical relationship between patient and doctor, and may therefore remain in an unadapted state…
Statements like these suggest that Jung experienced adaptation and individuation as opposites, or at least appreciated the tensions between them. However, Strubel demonstrates that at other times, Jung was aware that individual and group are interdependent.
Strubel identifies structural aspects of a group that he likens to structural aspects of an individual psyche. Strubel maintains that it is part of the individuation process to join and leave groups, to feel bound to them, then leave them. He holds that individuation always engages the individual with the collective in the search for meaning.*
Individuation and the Collective
Other Jungian analysts have explored the connections between individuation and larger groups where the influence of the collective is more pronounced. In a paper entitled “The Social Relevance of Jungian Concepts,” Jungian analyst Irene Lüscher reflects upon the works of C.G. Jung for their meaning to society, community, and the collective. She notes that three tenets of Jungian psychology deal with the relationship of the individual with the collective: individuation, self, and collective unconscious. We have previously explored the meaning of the term individuation as wholeness.
Post-Jungians tend to use self to mean the individual center and circumference, and Self to indicate the collective center and circumference. The collective unconscious may be thought of as psychic contents that belong to a group, community or to all humanity—the inherited or shared elements: The collective unconscious contains the whole spiritual heritage of mankind’s evolution, born anew in the brain structure of every individual.
Individuation and Typology
The degree to which one participates in collective activities may be influenced by typology. Jung was the first psychologist to exert a considerable effort to understand individual differences. In Psychological Types, first published in 1921, he explored differences in typology resulting from ego orientation (inward vs. outward) and modes of perception (thinking, feeling, sensation, intuition). Earlier typologies by the Greeks and Chinese and later versions by students of Jung seem to vali date that individual differences can be observed and fall into qualifiable categories. Perhaps most important for individuation is the issue of extroversion versus introversion. Extroverts tend to direct their energy outward—toward others—the group, the collective. Introverts tend to direct their energy inward—toward inner impressions of others. Introverts interact differently with the collec tive and contribute differently to the culture than extroverts. The individuation journey of an extrovert may be quite different from the individuation journey of an introvert. Extroverts tend to participate more frequently in group activities. Introverts tend to participate in more solitary pursuits. Wholeness for an extrovert may include finding comfort in solitude. Wholeness for an introvert may include learning group participation skills. Introvert or extrovert, individuation always occurs in relation to a collective backdrop. In the post-modern world, developing one’s typology often occurs in relation to organizational life.
Methods of Individuation
Jolande Jacobi, a Jungian analyst who wrote several books in the 1940s including The Way of Individuation identified six overlapping methods of individuation beginning with the natural biologic process versus the assisted process. Jacobi was especially adept at summarizing what Jung had written and developing models that clarified Jung’s work.
Jolande Jacobi’s Model of Individuation*
Assisted process—analysis or method.
Individual way vs. Initiation by participating in collective event
Gradual, many small transformations vs. Sudden, shattering experience
Continuous development over entire lifetime vs. Cyclic process reoccurring
in unchanged form
Only the first phase is accomplished vs. Both phases follow in sequence
Prematurely interrupted by outer circumstances vs. Undeveloped process in
atrophied form vs. A sick or defective process
Note that Jocobi acknowledges that “participating in a collective event” can be a means of individuation.
Participation in collective events is one method deliberately employed to initiate
the novice into the sacred
rites of the culture. Participation in collective events may concurrently
initiate members of a collective into a
culture or sub-culture. Most everyone in the United States
in my mother’s generation can remember exactly
where they were on December 7, 1941, the day they
heard Pearl Harbor was bombed. Most everyone in my
generation can remember exactly where
he or she was on November 21, 1963 when President Kennedy was a
ssassinated and on July 20, 1969
when Neil Armstrong first stepped onto the moon. Most everyone across the
world in my daughter’s generation will remember where they were on September 11, 2001 and Christmas Day,
2005 when the tsunami hit in the Indian Ocean. The collective events of one generation may be different
from the collective events of the next generation. The subsequent generation may not remember the collective events of the previous generation. Individuals are able to reflect on how the collective events of their
era changed their life course and worldview. In some ways, each generation and culture is initiated into its
own collective, which may be one reason why history seems to have to repeat itself. Lessons and initiations
may have to reoccur, to be experienced over and over—two steps forward and one step back—for evolution to
occur. Perhaps collective lessons, because they are archetypal, simply must
repeat forever. Either way, participation in collective events can have the power of an initiation that contributes to the process of individuation.
Aspects of Individuation
In her book on individuation, Jacobi identifies five aspects of individuation: psychological, characterological,
sociological, psychotherapeutical, and religious. In her model, the psychological represents development of
the human psyche, the characterological represents the maturation of
typology, the sociological represents
integration with the collective, the psychotherapeutical represents the ability to work with one’s complexes
and move away from neuroses, while the religious represents the development of a relationship with the
suprapersonal. I propose to add to Jacobi’s model a biological aspect, a cultural aspect, and a relational aspect.
The Collective Ground of Individuation
Jung’s earlier works addressed the process of individuation — while his later works more often addressed
of the contents of individuation— elements of collective experience that the personal unconscious may tap
into along its individuation journey. Jung’s life and his works reflect the tension inherent in the opposites
of collective wisdom versus individual experience. Jung believed that an individual needed to stay connect
ed to the collective experience even while individuating: “Identification with the collective and voluntary
segregation from it are alike synonymous with disease.” I propose that individual and group co-evolve,
that individual consciousness and group consciousness emerge as part of an interactive process. Individuation is the process of harkening to the intensely personal inner meanings, bringing them into the wholeness of the personality, and contributing meaning back into the culture via human relationship. Individua
tion occurs on a collective ground. Organizations offer an
alchemical container for individuation &*8212; of the
individual. Organizations may well offer an alchemical container for an increase in organizational consciousness
Jung, 1971, Definitions, in Psychological Types, CW 6, para 761.