The Ghinnawa:

The Ghinnawa: How Bedouin Women’s Poetry Supplements Social Expression


In 1978 in Jiddah, (meaning “grandmother,” “Eve”) Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the royal family shot to death in public, a princess for losing her “ird” and their “sharaf”, concepts of Bedouin honor, foreign to the westerner.

  • If Bedouin women are “re-pressed”, libido is “ex-pressed,” social tension released in their poetry.
  • If a client held Bedouin values, where might one listen/hear verbal expressions of the unconscious?


  • Arab world comprised of concentric circles, Bedouin, Arabs, Middle East, and Islam. “Arab used 854 B.C. in Assyrian records to describe the camel-herding Bedouins of Arabian Peninsula and Syrian Desert. [i]
  • The root word “badw” means “beginning,” basis for the Arabic words “dessert and “Bedouin.” The “badawi, the “Bedu, believed to speak pure Arabic, manners and customs are considered the ideal.
  • “Arab and “Bedouin once meant the same. A Bedouin returning from a visit with relatives is asked, “How are your Arabs? [ii] Nowadays “Bedouin refers to those still living nomadic lifestyle, or who are recently settled, and practice Bedouin cultural traditions. Bedouins comprise 10% of the population of the Arab world; 1% of Egypt.[iii] Today, Arabs in large cities carefully trace ancestry to a Bedouin tribe.
  • bn Khaldun, 1332 to 1406: ” on account of their savage nature (they) …plunder and cause damage… enjoy because it means freedom from authority and no subservience to leadership …they are least willing…to subordinate themselves to each other, as they are rude, proud, ambitious, eager to be leader.[iv]
  • ecause raids and intertribal warfare killed off many of the men, the birth of a girl child created an imbalance, a burden the father would eliminate by burying the infant girl alive in the sand. Mohammed condemned this practice as evil. Boys were often dressed like girls until they were about five to protect them from the “evil eye, envy of others, assuming that girls not envied.[v]
  • Bedouin ethic is the ideal to which all Arabs aspire. Affected by a language in which past and present are less clearly delineated, as images and figures from the past, as living ancestors, linked with an heroic age, environment and social form—the dessert and Bedouin people.
  • Bedouin ethos …”aristocratic moral code.”[vi] Jurists refer to Bedouin customs for precedent, grammarians to Bedouin vernacular for proper form.[vii]

Bedouin Society Structure and Values

  • Durkheim’s term “structure: orderly, organized basis of social life; framework of positions, roles, expectations constant over considerable periods of time.[viii]
  • Until oil industry brought economic resources, harsh dessert supported very little life. Value systems and customs that enhance survival permeate social fabric.
  • Society is patrilineal and patriarchal, “kin-based and strongly kin-oriented.[ix] Nomadic inter-related family groups, (agnates, paternal relatives) form the basic social unit. Endogamous, in-group, marriage supports cohesion. The smaller the group, the more cohesive. Until recent times, thee was no other power structure, no higher authority, beyond the tribal unit to which a single individual could appeal.
  • The younger a person, the more people there are to tell one what to do. The older a person, the more people to whom one is accountable as a leader.[x] An honorable man is one respected by his family, one who commands their loyalty, or “asabiyya — their “sense of honor. Mohammed condemned this kinship spirit because it pitted one family against the other, but it is an entrenched Bedouin value.[xi]
  • In traditional Bedouin society, one submits first to the family, then to the tribe, then finally to a village if the tribe has settled or other connections of kin. The concept of loyalty to a state or nation is a Western concept not fully actualized.
  • Endogamy assures economic order. Polygamy assures all women have an opportunity to marry. Any increase or gain stays within the immediate family. Children belong to the father. Marrying within the family group assures that the children have close ties to two sets of uncles and grandfathers. The best marriage is between children of brothers, keeping the holdings closely tied to one family. It is highly honorable for a young man to marry his father’s brother’s daughter, his first cousin.[xii] Endogamy also keeps mothers and daughters in same family, to their benefit in nomadic society.
  • Everyone is related to each other. Extended families live with each other and share food. Pressure to conform is intense and the rights of the individual are subordinated to moral code of the group. Each man is responsible to his “khamsa (“five)– male relatives within five kin links. Family cohesion and group loyalty is reflected in the proverb; I and my brothers against my cousin; I and my cousins against the stranger.[xiii]
  • The three Bedouin aspects of ethics of virtue, predate Islam: hospitality-generosity, courage-bravery, honor-dignity.[xiv] Hospitality (“diyafa) is a value linked to personal honor (“sharaf). Contributes to survival in dessert. Even an enemy must be given asylum and fed for three days. Poverty does not exempt one from the duties of hospitality.
  • Generosity a value closely linked to honor. Generosity redistributes wealth, assures the poor are cared for, and establishes patterns of behavior. Gifts must be offered and may not be declined; tithing is mandatory. One never compliments the possession of another; requires the owner to give the possession away.
  • Courage and bravery (“hamasa) closely linked concepts. Courage relates to the willingness to defend one’s group; manliness (“muruwa”). Bravery linked to the ability to withstand pain, especially male circumcision.
  • Authority is centralized, but tribes voluntarily tolerate as leaders only men whose moral virtue and ability are recognized. Leaders have no real rights, although they may be listened to more, but their duties are greater—are expected to be ready to sacrifice their life, possessions. Compliance with a decision depends on the good will of the disputant. [xv] The sheikh is merely influential. He is obliged to consult the tribal council. Cycles of leadership usually last only three generations. [xvi]
  • Men and women are never equal. Women are always dependents, and under the protection of men. Brothers accountable for older sisters. Bedouin mothers pamper sons, nursing them until three years old. Since lactation may suppress ovulation, the woman who has born a daughter will want to conceive again, so girls are weaned early.[xvii] Relatively ignored, girls internalize their lower status and role as subordinate to the men in her family. Girls remain in the world of women and maintain close emotional ties with sisters.[xviii]
  • Independence comes with responsibilities; dependence is afforded the dignity of choice. Voluntary deference, because it is voluntary, is perceived as a sign of independence, therefore an honorable mode of dependence. [xix]
  • Attitude toward sexual intercourse is that is a service the man renders the woman.[xx]


Honor, Sexual Honor

  • Among the Bedouin/Arabs there are two kinds of honor, “sharaf and “ird.
  • Honor is closely linked to group survival. Honorable behavior is conducive to group cohesion, survival, that which strengthens the group and serves its interests. Shameful behavior is that which tends to disrupt, endanger, impair, or weaken the social aggregate.[xxi] If any member loses honor, the entire family has lost honor.
  • “Sharaf, general honor, can be acquired, augmented, diminished, lost and regained.
  • “Ird, the specific kind of honor ascribed to women, is a rigid concept. A woman is born with “ird and grows up with it, and it is her duty to preserve it. “Ird cannot be augmented. A sexual offense, however slight, causes her to lose her “ird and it may not be regained. Virginity is physical; “ird is emotional-conceptual. A woman may lose virginity and retain her “ird. Loss of “ird is irreparable.[xxii]
  • Honor of men, “sharaf depends almost entirely on the “ird of the women of his family—mother, sisters, daughters, first cousins. The core of the “saharf is the protection of the “ird of female relatives. Men and women both protect a woman’s “ird for her father and brothers. A misbehaving wife is an embarrassment, not a dishonor. “Preoccupation with female sexual chastity has grown to a veritable obsessive intensity.[xxiii]
  • A transgression of “ird by a woman and her lover, like murder, is an offense requiring capital punishment, inflicted by her family rather than relinquish control to the outsider. Bedouin my stone to death a married woman. An unmarried girl may be killed or turned out of the tribe to fend for herself. A man may be killed or suffer amputation, punishments which are not in the Koran, but are tradition. [xxiv]
  • Protecting “ird shapes the lives of girls and women in Bedouin culture: veiling, segregation, and female circumcision. Clitoridectomy or infibulation practiced since pre-Islamic times. Uulama, Islamic religious scholars are opposed, but still practiced today among Bedouin in Jordan, Mecca, southern Arabia. The most solemn oath of the Arab is “by the honor of my women.[xxv]


Sexual Segregation

  • In nomadic conditions, complete segregation almost impossible, veiling assumed an important role. In Mohammed’s household during his old age when people trying to get to him contacted his wives, veiling resumed. His third wife Ayesha refused to veil, and preferred to appear as Allah had made her.[xxvi] After Mohammed’s death, the status of women and the attitudes toward them reverted quickly back to the Bedouin ethic.
  • Sexual and generational segregation is not attributed to patriarchal repression, but to the natural response of the weak and dependent who feel modest in presence of those more powerful. Segregation reduces the time the dependent person must act with restraint and deference. [xxvii]
  • Arabic literature attributes women with intense sexual excitability. It is also assumed that a man will take advantage of a woman whenever he can. Therefore if a man and a woman are alone together for more than a very few minutes, it is suspected that they have engaged in intercourse. Segregation supports modest behavior.
  • Abu-Lughod found that women fiercely protect the inviolability of their separate sphere: they resist or block arranged marriages especially to old men and paternal cousins, engage in sexually irreverent discourse, express irreverence toward masculinity and male privilege, use secrets and silences to their advantage, collude to hide knowledge from the men, and cover for each other in minor matters.[xxviii]


Bedouin Personality Traits

  • Bedouin personality comprised of sets of opposites. One pole valued as it supports the endogamous group. Trait at the opposite pole valued as it defends the group against outsiders: Cowardice vs. bravery, peacefulness vs. aggression, meekness vs. manliness, passivity vs. activity. [xxix]
  • Each of these personality attributes has its counterpart in the way the sexes treat each other. In highly segregated society, the opposite gender is the psychological outsider.
  • One overriding moral aim: preservation of self-respect. Self-respect depends much less on one’s actions– individuality, inner orientation– than the attitude and behavior of others toward him [xxx] — a tribal behavior, outward orientation.
  • Individual personality geared toward inducing others to respect him. One watches words, hides errors and weaknesses, conforms.
  • Concept of “wajh” or face, the outward appearance of honor. Loss of honor perceived as “blackening of face.” To “whiten the face of a kin group is to honor it. [xxxi]
  • “Hasham,” the concept of propriety, includes modesty, shame and shyness.[xxxii] Shame is between a person and his society. Guilt is between a person and his conscience. To the Arab/Bedouin personality, shame more than guilt,[xxxiii] modulates acts of deference to those with authority, power, or social status. Deference includes dressing modestly, downcast eyes, humble posture, speaking with restraint, and the most visible act —veiling. Trying to avoid shame can lead to the “fahlawi” personality.
  • “Fahlawi” personality is readily adaptable, adjustable to external requirements, superficially agreeable, amiable, hides true feelings, insincere, quick witted, makes light of problems, demonstrates one’s superior powers, dominating, reckless, excessive, exaggerated, self-assertive,[xxxiv] and silver-tongued.
  • Men and women admired for boldness and strength, verbal skills, storytelling, cleverness. Women can only express these qualities in situations of social equality—when they are not in a situation requiring deference.[xxxv]
  • Lost honor results in lost dignity, “karam;” lost dignity leads to lost self-respect.
  • Verbal insult is a threat to “karam,” requires a strong verbal retaliation to save face. Displays of insult and reaction are common. Those who observe the Bedouin protecting his honor may judge him overly sensitive and paranoid.



  • “Islam,” root word “peace,” means “submission.” Deity as word; sensate form of sounds and letters. “Koran” means “reading.”[xxxvi] Revelation is the rule rather than exception.
  • Mohammed, 570-610 AD, born in Mecca into impoverished, chaotic, and polytheistic surroundings. Tribal raids balanced scarce resources, drunken orgies commonplace. Blood feuds could last for generations [xxxvii] and were frequent. Entered service of older woman, Khadija. She proposed; they married. Revelations began when 40; Khadija supported and accompanied him during years of revelation.
  • “Allah” creator of the world, the guardian of contracts. Man created from a clot of blood.
  • The Koran is divided into 114 chapters or “surahs, arranged in order of decreasing length.
  • “Hadith are the Traditions, in addition to the Koran–stories about Mohammed from first two or three centuries–included many customs already in existence.
  • Quiyas—extension of Koran and “hadith by analogy;” an exact expression of group consensus, “ijma,” and as consensus, defy challenge.[xxxviii]
  • “Sunna” relate how a custom is to be practiced.
  • “Shari’a –immutable” principles of logic, are considered divine command and guidance, hence remain unchanged.[xxxix]
  • Both “hadith” and “sunna” describe how Mohammed practiced Bedouin customs.
  • Koran enjoins women to be modest and steadfast, give alms, obey God and His apostle. Men and women are to be devout, truthful, patient, humble, give alms, fast, guard sexual modesty, and be constant in remembering God.[xl] There are no sacraments in Islam.
  • Pivotal tenent of Islam is the sexual modesty of women. Mohammed ordered women to give up the immoral customs of the Time of Ignorance, the “jahiliyya.” [xli] Islam inherited the attitude of Judaism toward Eve as a sinful woman who disobeyed God, and towards sex as related essentially to women and to Satan,[xlii] but even in early Islam, sensuality was sanctified. [xliii] During rule of Harun al-Rashid in Baghdad (786-809) stories of Thousand and One Nights told. [xliv]
  • Koran replaced stoning to death as the punishment for adultery with a lashing of 100 stripes, at least for the unwed. Tradition suggests it is better to make mistakes of forgiveness rather than in punishment.
  • All the other major components of Arab ethical system—the hospitality, generosity, and kindness– are pre-Islamic.


The Feminine in Pre-Islamic Culture

  • By 3500 BC, semi-nomadic herders of cattle, sheep and goats. Raided, plundered, and enslaved. Goddess worship— semitic Ishtar, goddess of sexual love and fertility. (Inanna, Aphrodite.)[xlv]
  • 3500-500 BC: Settled agricultural cultural centers around the Nile in Egypt, in Sumer at confluence of Tigris and Euphrates. Semio-hamitic language families.[xlvi]
  • 3000 BC onward, drought pushed peoples from Arabian peninsula northward. As Babylonians, they took over Sumer and its culture. [xlvii]
  • In Arabia, the Great Goddess worshiped in three aspects: 1. Al-Manat, goddess of fate. “Mana still used by Arabs to mean luck. 2. Al-Allat, “the goddess,” also called ar-Rabbah, “the Lady,” whom Herodotus equated with Urania, a lunar diety, corresponded to the great mother of the gods, Asarte of the northen Semites. Al-Alat is the feminine form of Ilu, or Allah, 3. Al- Uzza, “the Mightiest” equivalent to Venus, Aphrodite, Babylonain Ishtar. So, like other moon-deities, the Great Goddess was threefold, thus corresponds in character to the Greek Moirai, the Fates, and the Nordic Nornes. [xlviii]
  • In deserts of Egypt and northern Arabian peninsula, nomadic tribes migrated, grazed livestock and raided.
  • Ancient Arabia had its “seven sages” like ancient Greece, but they were women. [xlix] Women judges and queens were prominent. [l] 745-728 BC: queens ruled Syrian Desert Aribi kingdom under Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III, capital in the Jawf.[li]
  • Matriarchal family system. Relation to the mother determined kinship and the attitudes toward love and sex were naturalistic.[lii]
  • Dualism: life and death, light and dark, spirit and soul, good and evil,[liii] divine and human, angels and jinn, truth and lie. Lunar calendar. Feeling of confinement in cave-like world, expressed in domed architecture.[liv]
  • Religion and sexual behavior not closely linked. Semites regarded trees, caves, springs, large stones or “baytili” meaning “house of God” symbols of mother earth– as inhabited by spirits.
  • Kabba, housed a sacred meteorite at Mecca; venerated as place of moon-god Hubal. The Kabba meteorite is image of Great Mother, earth goddess, pursued when fell through a hole in the sky by lightening, a symbol of the sky god. Kabba perceived as center of the world, highest point, axis mundi. [lv] Aged priestesses attended the goddess Al-Uzza there. Present day guardians of the Kabba are still called “Sons of the Old Woman.”[lvi]
  • Gods had fixed abodes; worshiped when tribe migrated or made pilgrimage to location. [lvii]
  • During the “jahiliyya” the pre-Islamic period women could dismiss their husbands by turning their tent around, an indication of matrilocal marriage. [lviii] The tent is regarded as the property of the woman and “tent” used like “harem.”
  • Women in ancient Arabia were commonly the owners of wealth, large flocks and herds. Husbands were herdsmen. “I will no longer drive thy flocks to pasture” was a statement of divorce.[lix]
  • Women named the children. The child’s name was combined with the prefix “abu meaning “father and conferred as the new, primary, name to the husband/father. Older Arab clans were name after female rather than male forebearers. [lx]
  • The word “rahem” meaning womb signifies a group of kinsmen. “Batn,” meaning belly, denotes a tribe. The clan or tribe is referred to as “mother.”[lxi]
  • Women actively participated in warfare, either alongside, on horseback, or as troops and commeoratede their exploits in poems and songs.[lxii]
  • Most important spiritual possession—poetry—associated with religion since its beginnings. Play instinct; sound and rhythm; speech served magic, empowered. Poetry glorified the person, a tribe, or patron; sexual love subordinate.[lxiii] Poets were regarded as sorcerers able to bestow blessings and curses. Ancient Arabs believed poets were inspired by Jinni who entered their bodies. Extracting a sorceress’ teeth deprived her of the ability to sing or articulate, and the ability to do harm.[lxiv]
  • Most beautiful ancient Arabian poetry are the elegies, composed by women in honor of their dead.[lxv]


Arabic Language

  • Arabic is holy, the language of the Koran. Alliteration, large vowel sounds, and guttural emphasis give range and richness that enhances poetry and story-telling. Verb system is logical, Tense is created by increasing exaggeration that results in a more colorful description the further back in time an event has occurred. Adjective system has fewer degrees of superlatives than English. Something “great” in English would be “the greatest” in Arabic. [lxvi]
  • Attribute of classical Arabic is repetition. The greater the intent, the more often the statement is repeated. Recitations of myth, tale, and the Koran are rich emotional experiences evoked by a language that penetrates the psyche like poetry or music. The words for the achievement of masculinity and verbal exaggeration or hyperbole are derived from the same root word. Speaking Arabic well is linked to achieving male maturity, not female maturity. Arabic of the Bedouin is pure dialect, limited and inadequate as a modern language. [lxvii]
  • Classical Arabic, because of its emotional content and predilection for exaggeration, results in more emotional judgements about people, their interpersonal relationships, and their role and positions in society.[lxviii]
  • Cause-and-effect connection between the uttered word and the object of desire—a characteristic Bedouin trait that translates into an adult indifference to following through. It is as if once something is said, it is brought about without any further activity. [lxix]
  • No word for “baby” or “child” in Arabic. Every noun is either masculine or feminine. From the moment of birth, a boy is a “walid and girl is a very separate thing, a “bint. [lxx] The separation in the language divides the practices for raising boys from those from raising girls.
  • Sheikh Inb Seena (Avicenna) wrote in 1027 that psyche is composed of two forces, a conscious force and a motive force. The conscious force is like sex and has two aspects, a surface aspect and an aspect concealed in the depths. The animal psyche is related to the body and the expressive psyche is related to speech. [lxxi]Using this logic, both motive and speech would seem to come from the depths of the psyche.


Poetry as Expression in Repressed Situations Among the Awlad ‘Ali

  • Lila Abu-Lughod, studied the poetry of the tribes of Bedouin in northern Egypt known as the Awlad ‘Ali from October 1978 to May 1980. She observed how poetry is integrated into everyday situations, its social context.
  • The Awlad ‘Ali use two opposing methods of communication in interpersonal situations:
  • Modesty/deference/minimizing or boasting/anger in keeping with the honor required to maintain face in everyday behavior, and 2. Lyric poetry of love and vulnerability to express feelings otherwise not allowed.[lxxii]
  • “Ghinnawas, “little songs,” are two-line poems reminiscent of Japanese haikus, filled with images, emotional longing, and sentimentality. Abu-Lughod recorded over 450 and each of these has countless variations. One ghinnawa may be chanted may times with minor variations in one singing. (Refer to ghinnawas, next page.)
  • Ghinnawas are the poetry of personal life, sung or chanted in social contexts like weddings and circumcisions, and everyday routines, when a woman is alone or sharing privately with others, expressing feelings about personal relationships and situations.[lxxiii] Ghinnawas may be sung by girls and boys and by men on rare occasions.
  • Ghinnawas are linked to the heart, soul, the inner person, feelings of the self.[lxxiv] Most express negative, dysphoric, painful emotions. Yet the highly formulaic and stylized verbal genre renders content impersonal and allows one to dissociate from the sentiments they express.[lxxv]
  • Ghinnawas are expressed and perceived in context. Like dreams or derivative communications, both the reciter and the situation must be known to decipher the meaning.[lxxvi]
  • Sharing material goods, exchanging visits, and physically caring for each other are expressions of social closeness. Sharing thoughts and feelings that do not conform to the social ideal is also a form of closeness. [lxxvii] Reciting ghinnawas marks the absence of deference between individuals.[lxxviii]
  • When confronted with loss, poor treatment, or neglect, social customs of honor allow open communication of hostility, bitterness and anger. Social customs allow only indifference and denial toward lost love. But a ghinnawa, sung along with the acceptable spoken communication, can express vulnerability, self-pity, betrayal, grief, pain, attachment, longing, revenge, and devastating sadness.[lxxix]
  • Poetic revelations are judged by different criteria than non-poetic expressions.[lxxx] When powerful emotions are channeled into poetry, self-mastery and control are seen as contributing to honor.
  • Abu-Lughod views the tales and poetry of women as a form of communication, resistance, and adaptation to the male-dominated system of power. She asserts that this form of expression is provided by the culture as a safety valve and that women’s core issues are revealed by the themes in their ghinnawas.
  • If a client came from the Bedouin culture or held Bedouin values, one might hear their true feelings and echoes of their unconscious in poetic asides.



Love and Longing

Fear not for your love

Is pressed between my eyelash and eye. 

On my breast, I placed a tombstone,

Though I was not dead, oh loved one 

I’ve lost their tracks, the loved ones.

Perhaps my singing will bring them.

Happiness in my absence is a failing

And grief between us the sign of love.

Separation from intimates is hard.

The heart dries up and the eye goes blind. 

Patience is my mourning for the loved one,

And your job, oh eye, is to cry.

Today they moved to distant camps.

Who before just a shout would bring.

The night of the beloved’s parting.

Cloud cover, no stars and no moon












I won’t take an old man, not I.

I will give him a shove and heâll fall in a ditch. 

God damn the uncle’s son.

Lord don’t lead me near no blood relative. 

Better death, blindness, poverty and destitution

Than a match with a married man.

Thirty ships of true love

And grief between us the sign of love.

If a new love match is not granted,

The heart dries up and the eye goes blind. 

My tears rushed down like a flood on a hill

Flowing over the match of the married man.











Forced by drought in the land

To seek refuge among peoples of twisted tongues

They patiently endured for years

What before they could not have borne a day.

They always left me stuffed with false promises. The wound, oh beloved, of your love

Heal one day, then opens again.






Grief and Despair

Despair of them, dear one, made you a stray

Who wanders between watering places.

Blinded by the sandstorm of despair,

The wells of love were plugged.

Ill and full of despair

Show me what medicine could cure this malady.

I built, when despair was away,

Castles it knocked down when it came.

Caught by a memory unawares,

Brought tears in the hour of pleasure

Drowning in despair,

The eye says, oh my destiny in love.









[i] Patai, Raphael, 12.
[ii] Abu-Lughod, Lila, 44.
[iii] Abu-Lughod, Lila, 41.
[iv] Patai. 19-20.
[v] Hamady, Sania in Patai, 29.
[vi] Patai, 73.
[vii] Patai, 74-75.
[viii] Lewis, 56.
[ix] Patai, 77.
[x] Patai, 78-79.
[xi] Patai, 92-94.
[xii] Patai, 92-93.
[xiii] Patai, 21.
[xiv] Patai, 97-99.
[xv] Brockelmann, 4-5.
[xvi] Lewis, I.M., 350.
[xvii] Patai, 30.
[xviii] Patai, 34-36.
[xix] Abu-Lughod, 104.
[xx] Ellis, Albert, 548.
[xxi] Patai, 90.
[xxii] Patai, 120.
[xxiii] Patai, 96.
[xxiv] Parrinder, Geoffrey, 165.
[xxv] Cited in Briffault, Robert, 377.
[xxvi] Parrinder, 174.
[xxvii] Abu-Lughod, 116.
[xxviii] To Speak or Be Silent: The Paradox of Disobedience in the Lives of Women, 26.
[xxix] Patai, 73-83.
[xxx] Patai, 100.
[xxxi] Patai, 101-102.
[xxxii] Abu-Lughod, 105.
[xxxiii] Patai, 106.
[xxxiv] Patia, 108-109.
[xxxv] Abu-Lughod, 110-111.
[xxxvi] Spengler, Owald in Patai, 317-318.
[xxxvii] Smith, Houston, 223.
[xxxviii] Campbell, Joseph. The Masks of God, 437.
[xxxix] Campbell, Joseph. The Masks of God, 435.
[xl] Koran, 33:35, 24: 30-31.
[xli] Koran 33:33.
[xlii] Saadawi, Nawal El, 138.
[xliii] Parrinder, Geoffrey, 160.
[xliv] Parrinder, 166.
[xlv] Campbell, Joseph, The Masks of God, 73.
[xlvi] Campbell, Joseph, Way of the Seeded Earth, 79.
[xlvii] Brockelmann, Carl, 2.
[xlviii] Brockelmann, 9; Briffault, Robert, 80-81.
[xlix] Ghali, Wacyf in Briffault, Robert, 377.
[l] Briffault, Robert, 375.
[li] Brockelmann, Carl, 6.
[lii] Saadawi, Nawal El, 135.
[liii] Spengler, Oswald in Patai, 317-318.
[liv] Spengler, Oswald in Patai, 316.
[lv] Eliade, Mircea, Patterns in Comparative Religion, 227.
[lvi] Briffault, Robert, 80.
[lvii] Brockelmann, 8-9.
[lviii] Smith, Robertson in Briffault, Robert, 374.
[lix] Briffault, Robert, 375.
[lx] Briffault, Robert, 91, 371.
[lxi] Briffault, Robert, 371.
[lxii] Briffault, Robert, 454, 376.
[lxiii] Brockelman, 11.
[lxiv] Goldziher, I. and Al-Tabari, M. in Briffault, Robert, 18-19.
[lxv] Briffault, Robert, 173.
[lxvi] Patai, 45.
[lxvii] Patai, 45.
[lxviii] Patai, 46-72.
[lxix] Patai, 31-32.
[lxx] Patai, 27-30.
[lxxi] Saadawi, Nawal, El, 151.
[lxxii] Abu-Lughod, Lila, Veiled Sentiments, 10.
[lxxiii] Abu-Lughod, 31.
[lxxiv] Abu-Lughod, 182.
[lxxv] Abu-Lughod, 239.
[lxxvi] Refer to Langs, Robert, Unconscious Communication in Everyday Life.
[lxxvii] Asbu-Lughod, 69.
[lxxviii] Abu-Lughod, 234.
[lxxix] Abu-Lughod, 187.
[lxxx] Abu-Lughod 189.


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