TORNADO AND HURRICANE AS SYMBOL
Television coverage of hurricanes shock us with the reality of the power of weather. We see the unspeakable suffering of those who have lost their homes, who cannot find their loved ones, and who crowded into dark, frightening shelters for survival. We watch as dogs, cats, cows, birds —along with human beings’ struggle on seas of water and mud. We hear that entire towns are washed away and may never rise again.
Each year hurricanes and tornados destroy homes and shatter lives. Early newspaper accounts tell us that this suffering has been with us since the beginning: In 1860, a cyclone deposited the head of an infant, and the arms and legs of a grown person, many miles to the west. In 1865, storm survivors found their livestock dead or impaled on broken branches. The earliest myth known to humankind is the account of a natural disaster. The Epic of Gilgamesh is at least 3,000 and more likely 4,000 years old. It is the story of a tumultuous clash of warm and cold forces—of Nature and human nature—and of archetypal devastation and suffering. It is the earliest known invitation to search for meaning in the ways we suffer and help each other through the storms of life. Tornadoes and hurricanes have only recently become a subject of science. They have long been the subject of literature and religion. In order to approach the tornado as a symbol, it is important to explore all its aspects–to amplify the symbol. One of those aspects is the wind itself. Another consideration is the various names by which spiraling, cyclonic winds are known. There are many substitutions in the terminology describing vortex winds, even within the same culture and same period of history. Let us review what is known about wind and spiraling winds to explore what can be surmised about tornadoes and hurricanes as a symbol.
“Think of the fluid element in which we live, on which we depend, as a divine current that envelops us, swirls through us, and joins us to a great, organic, barely fathomable whole.”[i] Wind metaphors are found throughout recorded history. “Ruwach” is the breath of life that God takes back from humanity with the great flood of Genesis. It is the east wind that brings a plague of locusts to Egypt. Moses calls on “ruwach” to part the Red Sea. In the Old Testament, the word “ruwach” is used 27 times to say breath, 106 times to mean wind, and 238 times for spirit.
The Arabic word “ruh” means “breath” and “spirit” and “move.” “The Hebrew word ëneshawmaw,í means a puff, wind, angry or vital breath, divine inspiration, intellect, soul, spirit. “God breathed ‘neshawmaw’ into Adam, bequeathing him both life and intelligence. [ii] The word “inspirationî comes from the Latin “spirare,” meaning “to breathe.” “It is not so much a phenomenon of concentrated consciousness as of being moved by the spirit, swept up by some content from the unconscious and in certain situations can even temporarily put out the light of consciousness.”[iii] Wind is the messenger of the gods, and can indicate the presence of divinity.[iv] “The animate force it portrays is often angry, often heroic, and given to both bestowing life and snatching it away.”[v]
Although the gender of the Hebrew word “ruwach” is feminine,[vi] to the Indo–European, the wind was a male god or gods. Lucifer was known as the Prince of the Power of Air, and was attributed with causing storms.[vii] In the Koran, King Solomon was attributed with power over the winds as he rode through the air on his flying throne.[viii] The Vedic Lord of Winds became Voten, Woutan, Woden, and Odin. His symbol was the Cross of Woton and he governed storms, winds, and rain. As the Holy Within, he became the mythical Catholic saint Swithin. In the Navajo Wind Way tradition “a person’s posture, balance, and ability to speak all are gifts of the winds dwelling within him.” His ability to talk and sing is due to a wind at the tip of the tongue. Winds shape the soft spots on the tops of his head and the curving lines on his fingers and toes. Finger whirls hold him to the Sky and toe whirls hold him to the Earth so that he does not fall.[ix]
Yogic teachings locate special energy centers in the human body. These focal points subtle energy, which are connected to endocrine glands and major nerve centers in the physical body, extend beyond the body into the energy field. Because they resemble spinning vortices of energy they are called “chakras,” from the Sanskrit word for “wheel.” The crown chakra at the tip of the brain is associated with spiritual awakening, is said to look like a whirling cyclone. [x]
In Navajo myth, thought and speech are personified as male and female figures, Long Life Boy and Happiness Girl. This couple is one of the central religious concepts of the Navajo, ‘sahah naghai bikeh hozho.’ Wind, speech, and thought, are identified with this concept. The Navajo perceive the entire universe as a community of discourse[xi] connected by wind.
Winds rotate, first by rolling over each other horizontally, sometimes by spiraling vertically. Rotation as a formative factor was an element in the theory of causation postulated by Anaxagoras, a Greek born about 500 BC. Anaxagoras hypothesized that an original action on a point of chaos had produced a rapid rotation which pulled together the stars and planets. He called the original force ‘Nous’ or ‘mind.’ “In Anaxagoras’ view, rotationóa revolving motion, a spin,–was the result of the first act of mind. Anaxagoras attributed personality to Nous and postulated that sensation is produced by the action of opposites, that each element or attribute contains features of its opposite.” [xii]
Winds within a vortex form a particular form of spiral known as the helical spiral. Whereas flat spirals are related to the symbolism of the maze, the helical spiral is linked with emanation, extension, evolution, cyclical and progressive continuity and creation.[xiii] The spiral is a lunar, aquatic, fertility symbol. Representations of fertility goddesses by Middle Eastern cultures often featured spiral headdresses or garments. Double spirals were associated with the mother goddess.[xiv] Spirals may signify equilibrium in a state of disequilibrium, the stability of being contained in the womb of change, growth that retains ultimate shape, and thus permanence despite its asymmetry.[xv] Jung wrote, “The spiral in psychology means that when you make a spiral you always come over the same point where you have been before, but never really the same, it is above or below, inside, outside, so it means growth.”[xvi]
- Vortex Winds
- The nature of Infinity is this: That every thing has its
- Own Vortex; and when once a traveller throí
- Eternity Has passed that Vortex, he perceives it roll backward behind
- His path, into a globe itself infolding; like a sun:
- Or like a moon, or like a starry majesty,
- While he keeps onward in his wondrous journey on the earthÖ
- Thus is the heaven a Vortex passed already, and the earth
- A Vortex not yet passed by the traveler throí Eternity.[xvii]
The rotation that Anaxagoras observed is the pattern of perpetual motion of the universe, the galaxy, solar system, and planet. The Earth, its weather systems, bodies of water, vegetation and the human body, all reflect the spiraling that is characteristic of vortex energy. [xviii] A true vortex exhibits turbulence, fluidity, rotation about an axis, centrifugal and centripetal forces. Studies of flow within very large tornadoes demonstrate highly complex movements of air, moisture and objects, upward on the outside and downward on the inside. Vortex structures can be relatively long-lived, stable processes. The Great Red Spot of Jupiter is a giant vortex of gas over 25,000 miles wide discovered 300 years ago that is still rotating today. Hurricanes, tornadoes, waterspouts, and dust devils, are vortex winds, all cyclones. Cyclonic winds are those with one round eye in the center. Cyclops, in Greek, means “round eye.” Having one eye is associated with a lowered consciousness and the brutality of the giants. Another vortex wind is named for the destructive Greek monster, Typhoon.
Hurricanes or Typhoons
When the sky changes color and the wind picks up enough speed to cause damage, it is called a storm. The word “storm” is closest to the word “stirmm,” an ancient northern Euro¨pean word that meant stirring foods together for cooking. Before evolving into “stir” and “storm,” it was probably used as a vivid metaphor, as in “the stirring of the skies.”[xix] A hurricane is a violent, tropical storm in the western North Atlantic with winds up to 73 miles an hour. A typhoon is its western Pacific counterpart. Both hurricanes and typhoons form on the ocean and sometimes move inland.
Greek myth describes how the goddess Hera gave birth to Typhoon with vengeful anger. “Because Zeus produced his beloved daughter Athena from the top of his head without any assistance from his wife, Hera decided to get back by spawning a monstrous opponent of Athena. The result of her efforts was Typhoon, a gigantic horror, half human and half animal with wings, covered in vipers from the waist down, who possessed a hundred dragons’ heads instead of fingers, and eyes which spat fire. When he attacked Olympus, the gods were so terrified that they fled to Egypt; only Zeus and Athena remained to fight him. After a terrific battle, Zeus succeeded in destroying him with a thunderbolt near Mount Etna.”[xx] This vortex wind “symbolizes the evil that brute stupidity can achieve in the service of a destructive reptilian passion.”[xxi] Incorporating both poles of the archetype into myth, the Greeks later reversed Typhoon’s association with evil after they defeated Xerxes I of Persia in a battle at Salamis.[xxii]
And, pleas’d the Almighty’s orders to perform,
Rides in the whirlwind and directs the storm.[xxiii]
The English word most frequently used to describe any visible vortex of wind is ‘whirlwind.’ Visibly rising and descending, whirlwinds are dynamic embodiments of the power of nature in every culture. Pushan, Chinese lord of all things moving, has hair braided like a shell,[xxiv] and the Vedic Rudra, Indian god of thunder and whirlwind, has hair braided in a spiral. Biblical whirlwinds accompany the fierce storms of the rainy season. In the Negeb region where dry desert heat mixes with cooler, moist Mediterranean air, the winds can be “so violent that they became metaphors for conquering armies, terrible misfortunes and divine visitations.”[xxv] Mentioned in the Bible 27 times, a whirlwind can represent two poles of God, his anger, or the quiet presence of His divine power, as when Lord spoke to Job out of the whirlwind.[xxvi] Dylan Thomas alluded to both aspects in his poetic phrase, “God in his whirlwind silence.”[xxvii]
On the Great Plains, the Lakota know the whirlwind as “Yum,” the bastard son of Face and Wind. To the Oglala, he is Yumni, a bastard and orphan. Having no direction to call his own, he moves from one relative to the other, carrying messages. Yum is associated with dancing, games of chance, love, and confusion.[xxviii] A Jicarilla Apache story tells how the ancient people missed two girls who were out gathering berries and wildflowers. They called on Whirlwind, who located them on a mountain.[xxix]
Just as the whirlwind can carry Godís voice, it may serve as a vehicle for entities or creatures. Wizards and evil spirits may ride on a whirlwind. According to the Crow Indians, whirlwind ghosts haunt graves and hoot like owls. An approaching whirlwind is admonished, “Where are you going? It is bad. Go by yourself!”[xxx] The Kiowa teach their children to look away or cover their eyes, and babies are shielded so they will not see them. A Laguna tale tells that Whirlwind Man actually did carry off a small girl.[xxxi] Among the Hopi, who believe the whirlwind spirit is present during the heat of the day, an expression is “I‘ll be back before the Whirlwind gets me.”[xxxii]
A Crow tale has the trickster, Old Man Coyote, married to a whirlwind ghost.“ Every night she puts herself and her husband on top of her lodge and goes magically traveling through the woods; during the day she sleeps. The reversal of night and day is unbearable even for the trickster Coyote. He finally escapes with the aid of mice, who transform him into their own shape.”[xxxiii]
In witchcraft, the whirlwind is depicted as the devil dancing with a witch and witches.[xxxiv] In a Seneca myth, the whirlwind is a witch, the violent Dagwanoenyent of the north, daughter of the wind, with the power to give life and the power to take it away, clear down to her bones. In China and Japan, the whirlwind was not evil. Rather it was the “beneficent ascending dragon preceding the fertilizing rain.” [xxxv] The Jicarilla Apache Indians also associate the whirlwind or cyclone and thunder with life–giving rain and attribute drought to a standoff between the elements that they could mediate with a rain dance.
To some tribes of American Indians, the whirlwind is the Great Spirit and its masculine power. Other tribes personify the whirlwind as a feminine spirit. Each myth reveals an aspect of the Native American psyche projected onto the whirlwind. The Arapaho, and the Gros Ventre, a division of the Arapaho, use the same word for whirlwind and caterpillar, believing caterpillars cause whirlwinds. In one Arapaho myth, Nihansan, a male “figure known for his many adventures, his ability to transform, and his many resuscitations after being mortally wounded,”[xxxvi] encounters Nayaanxatisei, Whirlwind Woman, who demonstrates her resilient personal power—an ability to withstand even the taunts and jests of trickster Coyote.
The Navajo Wind Way tradition portrays the whirlwind as a grounding force, one that can dole out punishment. By venturing into forbidden territory, the hero learns the rituals of restoration that comprise the Navajo Wind Way. In a myth reminiscent of Sodom and Gomorrah, the whirlwind of the Ojibwa Indians can provide sustenance for life, although it requires an unquestioning faith or it withdraws nourishment.
Much as the Arapaho believe the caterpillar is an expression of the whirlwind, the Dakota perceive a close relationship between the moth and the whirlwind. Because the wind is intangible and mysterious, it is visible only in its effects, for example, the moth cocoon. A real cocoon worn on the body or a cocoon illustration carved or beaded as decoration, is a symbol for the same power as the wind. The moth, like the wind, cannot be confined, has the power to free itself from an enclosure, and therefore is symbolic of freedom.
To the Dakota, unusual mental states are also visible expressions of the whirlwind. When a woman loves the wrong man, it is said she is confused, possessed by the whirlwind. When a man loses his presence of mind, the Dakota say he is over¨come by the power of the whirlwind. The Dakota might invoke the power of the whirlwind before a battle. A buffalo bull that lowered his head and kicked up the dust with his hoof in preparation for a charge was believed to be praying to the whirlwind. So the Dakota would pray like a buffalo by tossing up a handful of dust. Clark Wissler recounts an event that occurred at the Battle of Wounded Knee. Yellow Bird stooped, scooped up a handful of dust, and tossed it into the air. The soldiers took this as a signal for the battle to begin. Witnesses reported to Wissler that Yellow Bird was appealing to his medicine for aidóhe was praying.[xxxvii]
Reminiscent of the link between Woton and the bear, some Dakota believe that the bear holds the power of the whirlwind. These believers paint representations of the bear and pray directly to him, asking that a confusing whirlwind mind beset the enemy. Whirlwind Bear is often painted with a moth drawn over his head. Whirlwind Bear may also bring aid by appearing in a dream or a vision. Similarly, the Souix Indians link the whirlwind with confusion. The Blackfoot, on the other hand, believe the moth can bring mystical dreams.[xxxviii]
A waterspout is a tornado that occurs over water. Although they are vortex winds, waterspouts are not as powerful as tornadoes unless they appear near land. Waterspouts form in most of the oceans as well as lakes and large rivers. Sometimes in warm equatorial waters, they behave like dust devils, appearing when there are no clouds in the sky. Waterspouts may appear as gentle spins of salty spray or solid columns of water ten or twenty feet across.[xxxix] Polynesian sailors feared “Ara Tiotio,” god of the waterspout, also known as “Awhiowhio.”[xl]
In a first century AD account, the Roman naturalist and statesman Pliny described a waterspout as “especially disastrous to navigators, as it twists round and shatters not only the yards, but the vessels themselves. The same whirlwind when beaten back by its very impact snatches things up and carries them back with it to the sky, sucking them high aloft.”[xli]
The spinning motion of a whirlwind or waterspout is an important attribute of this natural phenomenon. To the Greeks, Fate was the spinner. In fairytales, spinning is often associated with fate and death, with themes of the underworld and rebirth, domains of the goddess. [xlii] Spinning can bring on a trance state, as whirling dervishes and young children know. Spinning, like any repetitive activity, can create a flow state, tap the unconscious, induce fantasies. Spinning may create order out of chaos in the same way a spinning wheel creates yarn from wool. Mechanical, eternally repeating movements may be associated with demons or cursed beings.[xliii] In the fairytale, “The Nixie of the Pond,” a spinning wheel is placed near the water and gives rise to a form of animus, a waterspout.
The word “tornado” comes from the Latin, “tonare” meaning “to thunder.” A tornado is an open vortex structure, an entrainment, a synchronization of vast amounts of moving air, water, earth, and objects. A vortex is a system that both lives and breathes –moves matter in and out for a period of time. A vortex, like a tornado is the kind of formation Ilya Prigogine calls a dissipative structure.[xliv] Dissipative structures are defined in terms of the relationships among their processes. Dissipative structures live and breathe because of the relationships among their processes. This relationship of processes is called “autopoesis” or “self-making.” A tornado is a vortex with a dissipative–autopoetic–structure. Single vortex tornadoes move air up on the outside and down on the inside. More complex tornadoes may have several parallel outer vortices around the perimeter moving air up and down.
A tornado is perceived differently than a hurricane, a flood, or an avalanche, because no storm is as graphically violent as the visible winds of a tornado. Perhaps because they are discrete and move within the field of vision, they are easy to anthropomorphize, to perceive as con¨scious entities. An 1879 Missouri tornado stretched “into a serpentine-like form, hung up by the head and writhing in agony, its tail curling and lashing as if actuated by the im¨pulses of a living body.” An 1896 Texas twister looked like “an elephant‘s trunk in search of food.” It is said that that a tornado “attacks” or “assaults” a city.[xlv] With energy equivalent to fifty kilotons of explosives– two and a half times greater than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima[xlvi] -tornadoes have the power to kill, to maim, to clear the landscape, to devastate existing structures. Whirlwinds are embodied with constructive virtues as wellóthey accompany the inner voice, wrestle with the trickster, stand up to thunder, precede the act of creation of new structures.
To the Kiowa, the tornado is Man’kayi’a. The Kiowa language clearly distinguishes between the whirlwind and the tornado. The word for tornado is “man-ka’iH” while the word for whirlwind is “ma-touigyH.” Kiowa legend tells of a monster that resembles a jackrabbit who lives in a hole on top of a hill and who makes windstorms with his long ears.[xlvii] To the Kiowa, the tornado contains the same energy as a horse. In a culture that does not distinguish between animate and inanimate, both tornado and horse are living beings. According to Kiowa legend, their ancient ancestors wanted horses, but could not find or capture wild ones, so they decided to build one which rises into the sky on its own accord. In another version the elders, after a long debate, decide to put it in the sky.
Tornadoes are the only feature of weather that link the sky and earth for any length of time.[xlviii] Just as a tornado can lift objects from the earth, a tornado can “lift a soul into the next world” in a form of transcendence. Long before Dorothy was swept from Kansas to Oz, Elijah was carried into heaven by the whirlwind. However, myths and dreams of tornadoes often contain references to dust, dirt, the ground, cellars or caves. A tornado can drive the hero underground. On the Northwest Coast of the United States, where tornadoes are rare, the Aisca Indians commemorate the ability of tornadoes to destroy a village, tear down stone dwellings, and to drive inhabitants into the earth in their myth of Yahamiyu, meaning Wind Woman or Cyclone.
Yahamiyu was an old woman whose live children, four boys and a girl, traveled around the world. Before they left, Yahamiyu gave her daughter a powerful stick with which to protect her brothers from harm. The brothers visited many places and won many wives by gambling. Each time they moved to a new place they left their wives behind. Eventually some villagers tricked the brothers. As they gambled late into the night, the villagers sealed them up in a rock house. Terrified, their sister returned to Yahamiyu and told her what had happened. Yahamiyu went to her sonsí rescue, split the rock with her powerful stick, and the family journeyed home. At each village where her sons had gambled, Yahamiyu touched her powerful stick the ground, turned the entire village upside down and buried the inhabitants under the earth.[xlix]
Ancient wisdom teaches that there is a feminine procreative energy, a presence or movement that precedes creation. In the Chinese tradition, man, nature and the heavens are all part of the same cyclic movement, the Tao, as described here in this passage from the Tao Te Ching:
There is a thing confusedly formed,
Born before heaven and earth.
Silent and void,
It stands alone and does not change,
Goes round and round and does not weary.
It is capable of being the mother of the world…[l]
The forces of wind and water preceding an act of creation appear in the Babylonian creation epic recorded about 2000 BC. Jung wrote about the meaning of this myth in The Symbols of Transformation. In this passage from “The Epic of Gilgamesh,” Tiamat, the mother of the gods, the Great Mother, whose name is related to the Hebrew word meaning chaos or confusion, rages and wreaks havoc. Marduk, the supreme god, born of fresh and salt water, readies all his powers to engage her:
He created the evil wind, Imhulla, the sou’wester, the hurricane
The fourfold wind, the sevenfold wind, the whirlwind, and the harmful wind,
Then he let loose the winds he had brought forth, all seven of them:
To stir up confusion in Tiamat’s vitals, they followed behind him.
The Lord raised up the cyclone, his mighty weapon;
For his chariot he mounted the storm-wind, matchless and terrible….
Imhulla, which followed behind him, he let loose in her face,
When Tiamat opened her mouth, as wide as she could, to consume him,
He let Imhulla rush in, and her lips did not close.
With the raging winds he filled her belly…
Vanquished her and put an end to her life.[li]
“After Marduk had slain Tiamat, he sat down and planned the creation of the world. By sacrificing the mother of the gods, Tiamat releases his energy,”[lii] and created the sky and world from parts of her body.
Similarly, in Jewish tradition neither wind nor water was created. They existed from the beginning when the Spirit of God “moved upon the face of the watersí”[liii] A Jicarilla Apapche myth mirrors the Babylonian and Hebrew traditions. The Apache believed that Cyclone and Water were both present from the beginning and that long before man walked the earth there were supernatural forces known as Hictcin. “The Hactcin are said to be the children of Black Sky and EarthÖsupernaturals, personifications of the power of objects and natural forces,”[liv] enlivening spirits.
In the Beginning
In the beginning nothing was here where the world now stands; there was no ground, no earth, nothing but Darkness, Water, and Cyclone. There were no people living. Only the Hactcin existed. It was a lonely place. There were no fishes, no living things.
Many cultures link the force of cyclonic energy coupled with water, and the pre- or pro-creative potentiality in the same form of movement. Edinger notes that it is the “encounter between spirit and undifferentiated substance that sets off creation. In Aristotelian terms, it is the meeting of form and matter…or anlage…(that) applies not only to the initial development of the psyche but also to each new increment of consciousness.”[lv]
An Arapaho creation legend teaches that the earth was created by a whirling feminine energy. Whirlwind Woman, Nayaanxa¨risci, a name that also means ‘caterpillar’, spun a small piece of mud until the earth reached its size and shape. In a reverse causation, the Arapaho believe caterpillars evoke whirlwinds. Whirlwind Woman is also attributed with the origin of quill embroidery, which she did as she circled around the earth. Her circular motions and pauses for rest are represented in Arapaho deco¨rative art.[lvi]
Navajo tradition credits Wind with the creation of the universe and associates dark clouds with a protective layer. After creation, Wind emerges with the other beings onto the present earth’s surface, where it continues to provide human beings and all living things with the means of life.[lvii] In a variation, a Navajo wind god, Has-chay’-el-thee, is said to have created human beings from corncobs. “From time to time, he peeped under the covering to see how the incubation pro¨gressed, and when the ears of corn had assumed the shape of men, the wind-god entered to give them life. He went in at the mouth and came out at the tips of the fingers. After the gods gave them minds and voices, a dark cloud descended from the heavens and covered them as a garment.”[lviii]
An analytic client of Melanie Klein, Wilfred Bion, was writing in the 1950s and 1960s on individuals and groups. Much of his work focused on attachment or bonding in encounters between people. Like Jung, Bion developed his theories by observing the psychoses of schizophrenic patients, those who live very close to the unconscious, whose ego often cannot make sense of the two poles of their inner experiences. Bion perceived all relationships as turbulent. Bion held that human beings long for attachment, but that when they engage, each experiences the other as a storm. The schizophrenic psyche splits, but while a person with a stronger ego takes to the storm shelter of his defenses. Bion’s theory explains the transferences of analysis, the tension within a couple, and the dynamics of groups. For Bion, getting past the turbulence, the storm of relationship, entails finding meaning. Just as the body metabolizes food to create nourishment, the mind processes raw experience into thoughts to make meaning. To weather emotional storms, the resilient psyche searches and finds meaning in the storm. We can bolster our resilience by searching for meaning——by recalling the myths and legends about cyclonic storms.
[i] DeBlieu, op.cit., 28.
[ii] DeBlieu, loc.cit.
[iii] Von-Franz, Marie-Louise. Archetypal Patterns in Fairy Tales. Toronto, Canada: Inner City Books, 1997, 91-92.
[iv] Cooper, J.C. An Encyclopedia of Traditional Symbols. London:Thames and Hudson, Ltd, 1978, p192.
[v] DeBlieu, loc.cit. [vi] Biedermann, Hans. Hulbert, James, trans. Dictionary of Symbolism: Cultural Icons and the Meanings Behind Them. New York: Meridian, Penguin Books, Inc., 1994, 383.
[vii] Walker, Barbara.G., The Womanís Dictionary of Symbols and Sacred Objects, page unknown.
[viii] Walker, loc.cit.
[ix] DeBlieu, loc.cit.
[x] Talbot, Michael. The Holographic Universe; New York: Harper Perennial, Harper Collins Publishers, 1991, 166.
[xi] Gill, Sam D. and Sullivan, Irene F. Dictionary of Native American Mythology; New York: Oxford University Press, 1992, 217.
[xii] Hastings, James,Ed. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Vol. I. New York: Charles Scribnerís Sons. 1955. See also Jung, C.G., Symbols of Transformation, The Collected Works, Volume V, Bolligen Series, para 67 and 76 for more discussion of Anaxagoras.
[xiii] Chevalier, Jean and Gheerbrant, Alain. A Dictionary of Symbols, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, 907.
[xiv] Russack, Neil W. “Amplification: The Spiral,” Journal of Analytical Psychology, 1984, 29, 128.
[xv] Ibid., 908.
[xvi] Jung, C.G. The Collected Works, Vol. V. Princeton, NJ : Bollingen Foundation, Princeton University Press, 1967, Volume 5, 21. 88 Blke, William. “Milton” 15: 21-35
[xviii] Sedona: Beyond the Vortex: The Vortex Society, Sedona, Arizona; 1995, 94.
[xix] Dennis. op.cit., 59.
[xx] Stevens, Anthony. Ariadneís Clue: A Guide to the Symbols of Humankind, Allen Lane, Publisher: The Penguin Press, 1998, 379.
[xxi] Stevens, loc.cit.
[xxii] Cirlot, J.B., trans. Sage, Jack. A Dictionary of Symbols. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1962, 354.
[xxiii] Addison, Joseph, “The Campaign” in Bartlett, John; Familiar Quotations. ed Beck, Emily Morison Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1982, 393.
[xxiv] Cooper, loc.sit.
[xxv] Maynard, Jill, ed. Illustrated Dictionary of Bible Life and Times, Pleasantville, New York: The Readerís Digest Association, Inc., 1997, 371.
[xxvi] Job 38:1, 40:6.
[xxvii] Thomas, Dylan. “Over Sir Johnís Hill.”
[xxviii] Powers, William. Ogalala Religion, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1975, 197 and Marchand, Michael J., “Mankayia and the Kiowa Indians: Survival, Myth and the Tornado,” Heritage of the Great Plains. 1993, 26 (2), 20.
[xxix] Marchand, Michael J. “Mankayia and the Kiowa Indians: Survival, Myth and the Tornado,” Heritage of the Great Plains, 1993, 26 (2): 21.
[xxx] Lowie, Robert H. The Crow Indians. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1956, 70.
[xxxi] Leach, Maria, ed. Funk and Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology, and Legend. New York: Funk and Wagnalls Company, Volume II, 1950, 1175.
[xxxii] Leach, ibid.
[xxxiii] Lowie, loc.cit.
[xxxiv] Cooper, loc.sit.
[xxxv] Cooper, loc.sit.
[xxxvi] Gill, op.cit., 216.
[xxxvii] Wissler, op.cit., 258.
[xxxviii] Wissler, op.cit. 258-261.
[xxxix] Dennis.,op.cit., 66. [xl] Internet, source unknown.
[xli] Dennis.,op.cit., 65.
[xlii] Biederman, Hans., op.cit., 317.
[xliii] Von Franz, Marie-Louise. Problems of the Feminine in Fairy Tales, Dallas, Texas: Spring Publications, 1972,119.
[xliv] Capra, op.cit., 97, 170, 171.
[xlvi] Davidson, op.cit., p 101.
[xlvii] Marchand, Michael J. “Mankayia and the Kiowa Indians: Survival, Myth and the Tornado,” Heritage of the Great Plains ,1993, 26 (2): 21.
[xlviii] Learning Channel, May, 2000.
[xlix] Gill, op.cit., 61-62.
[l] Purce, Jill. The Mystic Spiral:Journey of the Soul, London:Thames and Hudson, 1974, 20.
[li] Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, quoted in Jung, C.G., Symbols of Transformation. The Collected Works, Volume V, Bolligen Series, Princeton University Press, 1956, 252-253.
[lii] Ibid., 253.
[liii] (Genesis 1:2.) [liv] Opler, Morris Edward. Myths and Tales of the Jicarilla Apache Indians, New York: Dover Publications, originally published: New York: American Folklore Society, 1938. 1994, 13.
[lv] Edinger, Edward. The Bible and the Psyche: Individuation Symbolism in the Old Testament, Toronto, Canada: Inner City Books, 1992,18-19.
[lvi] Gill, op cit., 214.
[lvii] Gill, op.cit., 217.